Developmental and welfare schemes funded by state and central governments encourage participation by non-governmental organisations (NGOs). We will handle the groundwork so that your efforts to serve the less-privileged fructify.
There are two type of developmental schemes — central sector and centrally sponsored. Central sector schemes are totally funded by the Union government and implemented by the central government machinery. Central sector schemes are mainly on subjects from the Union List. The Union ministries also implement some schemes directly in states and Union territories. These are called central sector schemes but resources under these schemes are not generally transferred to states.
Under centrally sponsored scheme between 10 and 50 percent of the funding is shared by the states. Their implementation is also the responsibility of the state government. Centrally sponsored schemes are from subjects covered by the State List. Funds are routed either through consolidated fund of states and or transferred directly to state or district level autonomous bodies and implementing agencies. The number of centrally sponsored schemes has been reduced to 66 from over 140 during the 12th Five-Year Plan (2012-17). It would be effective next financial year. The government has also given the states greater flexibility to spend up to 10 per cent of the allocated funds. These include 17 programmes with significant outlays covering health, education irrigation, urban development, infrastructure sectors. For each new scheme, at least 25 per cent of funds may be contributed by the general category states and 10 percent of funds by the special category states including Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.
The government of India’s flagship schemes include the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme; Sarva Shiksha ; Mid Day Meal Scheme; National Rural Health Mission; Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission; Integrated Child Development Services; Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana; Prime Minister’s Gram Sadak Yojana; Indira Awas Yojana; Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme ; Water and Sanitation Mission or the National Drinking Water Supply Programme & Total Sanitation Campaign; Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana; Skill Development Mission; and Bharat Nirman.
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee popularly referred as MNREGA or NREGA programme is the largest flagship programme. The Union Budget 2013-2014 allocated over Rs 37,000 crore to this scheme for providing guaranteed employment to almost 50 million rural households. It is also the newest, having started in 2006.
The National Rural Drinking Water Programme is the oldest flagship programme. It was started in 1972 under a different name. Three of the top ten flagship programmes were launched by the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) –Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme, National Health Mission (formerly the National Rural Health Mission), and Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission.
Six are targeted at rural areas and focus on employment, health, development, water, housing and electrification. Of the other four, only one focuses on urban areas. The other three are nationwide and focus on children’s education and development.
The latest welfare scheme is the Food Security Bill. It will provide grains to nearly 70 per cent Indians at a fraction of market prices. The Food Security programme when implemented will be the biggest in the world with the government spending roughly Rs 1.25 lakh crore annually.
(Disclaimer: The information has been aggregated through secondary research. IFIE is not responsible for errors if any)